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Accounts Marathon for Junior Accountant and TRA Exam


Welcome to the Accounts Marathon for Junior Accountant and TRA Exam blog! In this article, we will be discussing accounting equations and their importance in the business world. As a professional chartered accountant and assistant professor, I believe junior accountants must have a thorough understanding of these concepts.

What are Accounting Equations?

Accounting equations are fundamental principles that represent the relationship between assets, liabilities, and capital within a business. These equations provide a clear picture of a company’s financial health and help in making informed decisions.

Let’s break down the components of an accounting equation:

  • Assets: These are the resources owned by a business, such as cash, furniture, machinery, and buildings.
  • Liabilities: These are the financial obligations of a business, including loans, outstanding payments, and debts to suppliers.
  • Capital: This represents the owner’s investment in the business. It can be the initial capital contributed by the owner or retained earnings from profits.

These three components form the basis of accounting equations. By manipulating the equations, we can derive various formulas to analyze a company’s financial position.

Types of Assets

Assets can be classified into two main categories:

  1. Fixed Assets: Fixed assets are long-term assets that have a physical existence and a substantial value. Examples include buildings, machinery, and furniture. These assets do not change frequently in value over time.
  2. Current Assets: Current assets, on the other hand, are short-term assets that are expected to be converted into cash within one year. They include cash, inventory, accounts receivable, and marketable securities. Current assets can change rapidly in value.

It is important to recognize the distinction between these two types of assets as they have different implications for financial analysis and decision-making.

Types of Liabilities

Similar to assets, liabilities can be categorized into two main types:

  1. Long-term Liabilities: Long-term liabilities refer to financial obligations that are due beyond one year. Examples include long-term loans, mortgages, and bonds. These liabilities have a longer repayment period.
  2. Short-term Liabilities: Short-term liabilities are financial obligations that are due within one year. They include accounts payable, accrued expenses, and short-term loans. These liabilities are typically settled in the near future.

By understanding the types of liabilities, businesses can effectively manage their financial obligations and plan for future cash outflows.

The Importance of Accounting Equations

Accounting equations provide key insights into a company’s financial health and performance. By analyzing the equation components, businesses can evaluate their financial position, profitability, and solvency.

For example, the current ratio, which is calculated by dividing current assets by current liabilities, allows companies to assess their ability to meet short-term obligations. A higher current ratio indicates better liquidity and financial stability.

Accounting equations also play a vital role in financial reporting and decision-making. They serve as the foundation for creating balance sheets, income statements, and cash flow statements, which are essential for providing accurate and transparent financial information to stakeholders.


In conclusion, understanding accounting equations is crucial for junior accountants and businesses alike. These equations enable us to analyze a company’s financial health, make informed decisions, and effectively communicate financial information to stakeholders.

By recognizing the components of accounting equations – assets, liabilities, and capital – and their classifications, businesses can gain a competitive edge and achieve financial success.

Thank you for reading this Accounts Marathon blog! Stay tuned for more informative articles on accounting and finance.

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